The French Revolution of 1848 marked a phase of social and political turmoil that resulted in the downfall of the July Monarchy and the establishment of the French Second Republic.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Louis XVIII governed France as part of a constitutional monarchy. After his death in 1824, his brother, the Count of Artois, assumed the throne as Charles X. Uninterested in a constitutional monarchy, he took steps to bolster his authority by curtailing press
Jovian, the Roman Emperor from June 363 to February 364, ascended to the throne following the death of Julian the Apostate.
Early Life & Ascension to the Throne
Jovian, born on June 27, 331, in Singidunum, Moesia Superior (modern-day Belgrade, Serbia), was the son of Varronianus, the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. Joining the guards, he played a significant role in 361, escorting Constantius' remains to the Church of the Holy Apostles.
That same year Jovia
At the Battle of Thapsus, which took place on February 6, 46 BC near Thapsus in modern Tunisia, Julius Caesar’s army delivered the final blow against supporters of Pompey the Great.
In 49 BC, the Roman Republic plunged into its final civil war as Julius Caesar defied senatorial orders to disband his army following the Gaul campaign and advanced towards Rome. The Optimates, lacking an organised army, sought refuge in Greece under Pompey’s leadership but were eventually defeat
Livia Drusilla (58 BC-AD 29) was the third wife of Emperor Augustus, the mother of Emperor Tiberius, and the grandmother of Emperor Claudius. She stands as one of the remarkable women who rose to prominence while residing in the shadow of a powerful leader.
Early Life & Marriage
Though much of Livia’s early life remains shrouded in mystery, a common thing for women of her era, she is believed to have been born on January 30, 58 or 59 BC, most likely in Rome. Before her marriage to
Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great or Charles I (742-814), was King of the Franks from 768 to 814, King of the Franks and Lombards from 774 to 814, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800 to 814. Renowned for his military achievements that brought together a significant portion of Western Europe, he remains a prominent figure from the Early Middle Ages.
Early Life & Rise to Power
Charlemagne’s birthplace was likely Aachen, in present-day Germany, during the final years of the Mer